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Inverter
Inverter's Technical Indicators 2018-07-02 17:29:13

1. Output voltage stability

In the photovoltaic system, the solar battery power storage by the battery first, and then through the inverter into a 220V or 380V AC. However, the battery charge and discharge by its own impact, the output voltage range, such as the nominal 12V battery, the voltage value can vary between 10.8 ~ 14.4V (beyond this range may cause damage to the battery). For a qualified inverter, the input voltage changes within this range, the steady-state output voltage changes should not exceed ± 5% of the rated value, and when the load changes suddenly, the output voltage deviation should not exceed ± 10% of rating.


2. The output voltage waveform distortion

For sine wave inverters, the maximum allowable waveform distortion (or harmonic content) should be specified. Usually expressed as the total waveform distortion of the output voltage, the value should not exceed 5% (single-phase output allows 10%). As the harmonic current output by the inverter will generate additional losses such as eddy current on the inductive load, if the inverter waveform distortion is too large, it will cause serious heating of the load components, which is not conducive to the safety of the electrical equipment and seriously affects the system The operating efficiency


3.Rated output frequency

For loads such as motors and washing machines, refrigerators and the like, the best frequency of the motor is 50Hz. If the frequency is too high or too low, the equipment will generate heat and reduce the operating efficiency and service life of the inverter. Therefore, The output frequency should be a relatively constant value, usually 50Hz, with a deviation of ± 1% under normal operating conditions.

Load power factor

Characterization of the inverter with inductive or capacitive load capacity. Sine wave inverter load power factor of 0.7 to 0.9, the rated value of 0.9. In the case of a certain load power, if the power factor of the inverter is low, the required capacity of the inverter will increase, causing an increase in cost and an increase in the apparent power of the AC system of the photovoltaic system, Current increases, loss will inevitably increase, the system efficiency will be reduced.


5. Inverter efficiency

Inverter efficiency refers to the ratio of output power to input power under specified operating conditions, expressed as a percentage, under normal circumstances, the nominal efficiency of photovoltaic inverter refers to purely resistive load, 80% load case s efficiency. Due to the high overall cost of the photovoltaic system, the efficiency of the photovoltaic inverter should be maximized, the system cost should be reduced, and the cost performance of the photovoltaic system should be raised. At present, the mainstream inverter nominal efficiency of 80% ~ 95%, low-power inverter requires its efficiency of not less than 85%. In the actual design process of the PV system, not only the inverter with high efficiency should be selected, but also the PV system should be operated at the best efficiency point through reasonable system configuration.


6, rated output current (or rated output capacity)

Indicates the rated output current of the inverter within the specified load power factor. Some inverter products are given the rated output capacity, the unit to VA or kVA said. The rated capacity of the inverter is the product of the rated output voltage and the rated output current when the output power factor is 1 (ie purely resistive load).


7, protective measures

A good performance of the inverter, but also should have a complete protection or measures to deal with the actual use of the various abnormalities occurred during the inverter itself and other components of the system from damage.

(1) Enter the under-pressure policyholders:

When the input voltage is lower than 85% of the rated voltage, the inverter should be protected and displayed.

(2) input over-pressure policy:

When the input voltage is higher than 130% of the rated voltage, the inverter should be protected and displayed.

(3) over-current protection:

The inverter over-current protection should be able to ensure timely action when the load is short-circuited or the current exceeds the allowable value, so as to protect it from inrush current. When the operating current exceeds the rated 150%, the inverter should be able to automatically protect.

(4) Output short-circuit policyholders

Inverter short-circuit protection action time should not exceed 0.5s.

(5) input reverse protection:

When the input is positive, negative reverse, the inverter should have protection and display.

(6) Lightning protection:

Inverter should be lightning protection.

(7) over-temperature protection and so on.

In addition, the inverter without voltage stability measures, the inverter should also be output over-voltage protection measures to protect the load from over-voltage damage.


8.Starting characteristics

Characterization of the inverter with load start-up capability and dynamic performance at work. Inverter should ensure reliable starting under rated load.


9. Noise

Power electronics equipment, transformers, filter inductors, electromagnetic switches and fans and other components will produce noise. The normal operation of the inverter, the noise should not exceed 80dB, small inverter noise should not exceed 65dB.

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