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Working principle of photovoltaic

2017-07-13

The main principle of photovoltaic power generation is the photoelectric effect of semiconductors. Photon irradiation to metal, its energy can be one electron of the metal absorption, the absorption energy of the electron is large enough to overcome the gravity acting within the metal, leaving the metal surface to escape, a photoelectron. The silicon atom has 4 electrons, if pure silicon doped with 5 outer electrons of the atoms such as phosphorus atoms, is N type semiconductor; if the pure silicon doped with 3 outer electrons of the atoms such as boron atoms to form P type semiconductor. When P and N together, the contact surface will form a potential difference, become the solar cell. When the sun irradiates the P - N junction, the hole moves from the P polar region to the N region, and the electrons move from the N polar region to the P pole, forming an electric current.

The photoelectric effect is the phenomenon of potential difference between different parts of a semiconductor or semiconductor that is illuminated by light. It begins with the conversion of photons (light waves) into electrons and light energy into electrical energy, by the formation of voltage processes.

After the process of ingot casting, ingot breaking and slicing, the polysilicon is made into a silicon wafer to be processed. Doping and diffusion of small amounts of boron, phosphorus, etc. on silicon wafers


Photovoltaic power generation schematic

Into P - N junction. Then, screen printing is used to make the fine silver paste on the silicon wafer to make the grid line. After sintering, the back electrode is made, and a anti reflection coating is coated on the surface of the grid wire. The battery plate is made here. The battery plate is arranged in a battery assembly to form a large circuit board. In the general assembly around the aluminum frame, front cover glass, negative electrode mounting. With battery components and other auxiliary equipment, a power generation system can be formed. In order to convert direct current into alternating current, a current converter is needed. After power generation, the batteries can be stored and also can be input into the public power grid. In the power generation system, the battery component accounts for about 50%, the current converter, installation costs, other auxiliary components and other costs account for another 50%.

 

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