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MPPT Controller details introduction

2017-11-02

MPPT controller full name is Maximum Power Point Tracking solar controller, is the traditional solar charge and discharge controller upgrade products. The MPPT controller can detect the generation voltage of the solar panel in real time and track the maximum voltage and current value (VI), allowing the system to charge the battery with maximum power output. Used in solar photovoltaic systems, coordination of solar panels, batteries, load work, is the photovoltaic system of the brain.


The maximum power point tracking system is an electrical system capable of outputting more power by adjusting the working state of the electrical module so that the direct current generated by the solar panel can be effectively stored in the battery, which can effectively solve the problem that the conventional power grid can not cover Of remote areas and tourism areas of living and industrial electricity, does not produce environmental pollution.


1. What is the role of MPPT?

As the solar cell received light intensity and environmental factors such as the impact of external factors, the output power is changing, the intensity of the power emitted by more, with MPPT maximum power tracking inverter is to make full use of solar cells, so that the operation At maximum power point. That is, in the case of the same solar radiation, MPPT after the output power will be higher than before MPPT, which is the role of MPPT.

It is assumed that MPPT has not yet begun to track, then the component output voltage is 500V, and then MPPT began to track, began to adjust the circuit through the internal circuit resistance to change the component output voltage, while changing the output current, until the output Power is the largest (assuming 550V maximum), then continue to track, so that is in the case of solar radiation in the case of components in the 550V output voltage, the output power will be higher than 500V, which is MPPT The role.

2. The principle of maximum power point tracking

With the development of electronic technology, the current solar cell array MPPT control is generally through the DC / DC converter circuit to complete. The photovoltaic cell array is connected to the load via a DC / DC circuit. The maximum power tracking device continuously detects the current and voltage variations of the PV array and adjusts the duty cycle of the PWM drive signal of the DC / DC converter according to its variation.

For a linear circuit, when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance of the power supply, the power supply has the maximum power output. Although the photovoltaic cells and DC / DC converter circuits are strongly non-linear, but in a very short period of time, can be considered a linear circuit. Therefore, as long as the DC-DC conversion circuit to adjust the equivalent resistance so that it is always equal to the internal resistance of photovoltaic cells, you can achieve the maximum output of photovoltaic cells, also realized the photovoltaic cell MPPT.

3.MPPT algorithm

At present, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technology of PV arrays has been studied at home and abroad, and various control methods have been developed. There are several kinds of commonly used constant voltage tracking (CVT) Perturbation Observation and Observation (P & O), Incremental Conductance (CAS), Conductivity Increment Based on Gradient Variable Step Size, and so on.

1) single peak power output of the MPPT algorithm

At present, in the absence of occlusion conditions, the PV array maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control methods commonly used are the following:

Constant voltage tracking (Constant Voltage Tracking referred to as CVT)

Perturbation and Observation (P & O)

Incremental ConductanceMethod (INC)

A geometric incremental method based on gradient step size, and so on.

2) multi-peak power output MPPT algorithm

Ordinary maximum power tracking algorithms, such as perturbation observations and conductance increments, are likely to fail under a block of clouds and can not achieve true sense of maximum power tracking. At present, the international MPPT algorithm has also been proposed, including the following three: combined with the conventional algorithm of composite MPPT algorithm, Fibonacci method, short-circuit current pulse method.

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