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MPPT Algorithm Analysis

2018-01-26

The diagram below shows the volt ampere curve and power curve of solar panel. It can be seen that as the voltage increases, the current always decreases, and the power has the maximum value.


MPPT algorithm analysis 1.MPPT overview below is the volt ampere curve and power curve of solar panel. It can be seen that as the voltage increases, the current will always decrease, and the power has the maximum value.

The optimal working point for solar panels is called the maximum power point, which depends on the working temperature of the panels and the level of light at that time. Under different temperature and light intensity of different maximum power point of solar panels, to make the maximum power point of solar panels as much as possible to work in, you need to use the photovoltaic maximum power tracking, MPPT technology implementation of the most important thing is to find suitable MPPT control algorithm, can effectively in a rapidly changing weather conditions to track the maximum power point, control panels, work as much as possible on the maximum power point.

MPPT has many algorithms, such as constant pressure tracking, incremental conductance and interference observation, etc.

(1) Constant pressure tracking method:

From the picture above you can see, when the temperature is, the maximum power point of solar panels under different light intensity almost fell on both sides of the same root vertical line nearby, it's likely to approximate maximum power line as a constant voltage V a vertical line, make the photovoltaic panels in a fixed voltage. The constant pressure tracing method is an approximate maximum power tracking method.

Constant pressure tracking method has certain power loss. In particular, when the temperature changes, the open circuit voltage of the solar panel changes, while the voltage of the constant voltage tracking method is a constant value, so the tracking efficiency is not high.

(2) Incremental conductance method.

The conductance increment method outputs the control signal by comparing the conductance increment and the instantaneous conductivity of the solar panel. The working voltage of the solar panel should be increased to reach the maximum power point when the electric conductivity increment of the solar panel and the instantaneous conductivity are greater than 0.When the electric conductivity of the solar panel and the instantaneous conductivity are less than 0, the working voltage of the solar panel should be reduced to reach the maximum power point.

The electric conduction increment method is accurate and the response speed is fast, which is suitable for the situation where atmospheric conditions change quickly. However, the requirements of hardware, especially the precision of the sensor, are relatively high, and the response speed of each part of the system is relatively fast, so the hardware cost of the whole system is also high.

(3) Interference observation method:

The interferometer method is to realize MPPT by comparing the output power of the solar panel with the previous one to increase or decrease the working voltage of the solar panel. At a certain moment in t1, the output power of solar panels for P1, output signal processor, make solar panels working voltage increases Δ V Δ t after a period of time, at time t2 (t2 = t1 + Δ t) detected the output power of solar panels to P2.If Δ P (Δ P = (P1, P2) is positive, you should make solar panels continue to increase Δ V working voltage, until Δ P = 0;If Δ P is negative, it should reduce solar panels working voltage.

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