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The Micro-Crack of PV Modules 2017-08-18 16:01:33

1.What is the micro-crack ?

Micro-Crack is a more common flaw in crystalline silicon PV modules. Crystal silicon components due to its own crystal structure characteristics, very prone to rupture.

Crystalline silicon components in the production process, many links are likely to cause the battery chip crack. The root cause of the crack can be attributed to the mechanical stress or thermal stress on the silicon wafer. Now in order to reduce costs, crystalline silicon cells to more and more thin direction, reducing the ability of the battery to prevent mechanical damage, more prone to crack.


2. The effect of "micro-crack" on component performance

Crystalline silicon solar cell structure As shown below, the current generated by the battery chip mainly rely on the surface perpendicular to the main grid lines and fine lines to collect and export. Therefore, when the crack resulting in broken lines, the current will not be effectively transported to the main grid line, resulting in part of the battery chip and even the whole piece of failure, may also cause debris,Hot spots, etc., while causing the component's power attenuation.

The latent cracks perpendicular to the main grid line hardly affect the fine grid lines, resulting in the area of the battery failure being almost zero.

And is in the rapid development of thin film solar cells, due to its material, structural characteristics, there is no problem of cracking. While its surface through a layer of transparent conductive film to collect and transmit current, even if the battery chip has a small flaw caused by the conductive film rupture, it will not cause a large area of battery failure.

Studies have shown that if a battery has a failure area of less than 8%, the component has little effect on the power of the component, and 2/3 of the component in the component has no effect on the power of the component. So, although the crack is a common problem of crystalline silicon cells, but do not have to worry too much.


3.Identify the "micro-crack"

EL (Electroluminescence) is a solar cell or component of the internal defect detection equipment, is a simple and effective method of detecting the crack. Using the electroluminescent principle of crystalline silicon, the near infrared image of the component is captured by a high-resolution infrared camera to acquire and determine the defect of the component. With high sensitivity, fast detection, the results of intuitive image and so on. The following figure is the EL test results, clearly shows a variety of defects and cracks.


4. The formation of "micro-crack" reasons

1) external force: the battery in the welding, laminated, framed or handling, installation, construction and other processes will be subject to external forces, when the parameters set improper, equipment failure or improper operation will cause a crack.

2) high temperature: the battery chip at low temperature without preheating, and then in a short period of time after a sudden high temperature after the expansion will cause a crack phenomenon, such as welding temperature is too high, the laminating temperature and other parameters set unreasonable.

3) raw materials: raw material defects are also one of the main factors leading to crack.


5. Prevention of photovoltaic components cracked points

In the production process and follow-up storage, transportation, installation to avoid improper involvement of the battery chip, but also pay attention to the storage environment temperature range.

In the welding process to keep the battery in advance (hand welding) soldering iron temperature to meet the requirements.

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